Overall there is immense potential for hydroelectric power and geothermal energy generation. Nine of the country's major rivers are suitable for hydroelectric power generation. The potential for possible development of geothermal energy generation is also substantial. Africa's largest wind farm is currently under construction as part of this comprehensive clean/green energy expansion. In all, Ethiopia has the capacity to produce some 45,000MW, more than the current total used by the whole of sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to 2005 the amount generated was less than 1,000MW with only 17% of the population having access to electricity. By 2011, the amount of power generated had risen to 2218MW with over 40% of the population using electricity. The Growth and Transformation Plan aims to increase power to between 8000 and 10000 MWs. This will allow Ethiopia to export power to Djibouti, Kenya and Sudan. Transmission lines to all three countries are in process of being built and Ethiopia is already providing 200 MW of power to Sudan through the Eastern African Power Pool framework, and a start has been made on supplies to both Djibouti and Kenya.
The Plan calls for the building of some two thousand four hundred kilometres of railway to enable the bulk transport of commodities to and from markets and with regional port facilities. Rail projects include a light railway for Addis Ababa, with 43% of the work currently complete, and 656 kms of the revived Addis Ababa to Djibouti line. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti line is a growing testimony of regional integration with 20% of its construction now complete. Other plans include a railway line from a new port at Tadjourah in northern Djibouti to Makelle in Tigray Regional State through the potash areas under development in Afar Regional State. Though outside the GTP, Ethiopia may also benefit from the proposed rail and road links linking the planned multi-billion port project and oil refinery at Lamu in Kenya to South Sudan, passing through Ethiopia, the Lamu Port South Sudan Ethiopian Transport Corridor (LAPSSET). One related element is intended to include a rail link to Addis Ababa. One essential pillar of the Plan is the development of the Ethiopian Shipping Lines. In this regard, the Ethiopian Shipping Lines acquired additional ships, including seven multi-purpose cargo vessels and two oil tankers.
Horticultural development for the export of flowers, fruit and vegetables has been one the success stories of recent years. It is set to continue. In 2011 the House of Representatives approved a law imposing mandatory environmental controls on horticultural producers, covering flower, fruit and vegetable production for export. They are now required to obtain certification from the Ethiopian Environmental Protection Agency. Coffee production is expected to double during the GTP, increasing from 300,000 tonnes to up to 700,000 tonnes. Spice production is expected to nearly triple during the five year plan. The plan also involves the provision of training, organization, supply of finance and technology to farmers and the expansion of micro and small-scale enterprises in urban areas, to provide support for low and middle income groups. Overall, the plan calls for a shift to high-value crops, a focus on high-potential areas, the commercialisation of smallholder farming, and the development of large-scale, commercial agriculture. The industrial sector will remain heavily dependent on imports of semi-processed goods, raw materials, spare -parts and fuel. Industries will include food processing and beverages, household and office furniture, metal works and printing as well as leather and textile factories. Over 60% of industries have been located in and around Addis Ababa but this is rapidly changing as the regional capitals develop.
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