A more extensive list of suggested further reading on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa
There is an immense and continually growing literature on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. We have listed here a number of the more interesting books for further reading on history and culture, travel, art and literature. We have not included articles, many of which are to be found in the publications of the triennial International Conferences of Ethiopian Studies (ICES): the most recent of these have been:
Marcus, H. G. (ed.), 1994 New Trends in Ethiopian Studies. Papers of the XII International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Michigan State University, 5–10 September 1994, 3 vols., Lawrenceville NJ.
Katsuyoshi Fukui, Eisei Kurimoto and Masayoshi Shigeta (eds.), 1997 Ethiopia in Broader Perspective. Papers of the XIIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Kyoto, 12–17 December 1997, Kyoto.
Baye Yimam (ed.), Proceedings of the XIVth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa, 6– 11November 2000. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies.
Uhlig, S. (ed.) 2006. Proceedings of the XVth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies Hamburg July 20– 25, 2003. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Ege, S., Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele (eds). Proceedings of the XV1th. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Trondheim, 2-7 July 2007. Proceedings can be accessed through http://portal.svt.ntnu.no/sites/ices16/default.aspx
The XVIIth. International Conference of Ethiopian Studies was held in November 2009 in Addis Ababa.
History and culture (general)
Asmerom Legesse 2006. Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System Trenton NJ: Red Sea Press.
Bahru Zewde, 1998 A Short History of Ethiopia and the Horn, Addis Ababa.
1991 A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1974. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Beckwith, C., Fisher, A. and Hancock, G. 1990 African Ark: People and Ancient Cultures of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Harry N. Abrams.
Bender, M. Lionel (ed.). 1981 Peoples and Cultures of the Ethio-Sudan Borderlands. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.
Berhanou Abebe, 1998 Histoire de l'Ethiopie d'Axoum a la revolution, Paris: Maison-neuve et Larose.
Crummey, Donald, 2000 Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dessalegn Rahmato. 1985 Agrarian Reform in Ethiopia. Trenton: Red Sea Press.
Doresse, Jean, 1971 Histoire Sommaire de la Corne Orientale de l'Afrique, Paris: Geuthner.
Henze, Paul, 2000 Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, Hurst, London.
Iyob, Ruth. 1995.The Eritrean Struggle For Independence: Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941-1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leroy, Jules. 1973 L'Ethiopie – Archeologie et Culture, Bruges: Deschede Brouwer.
Levine, Donald N. 2000 Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multi-Ethnic Society. 2nd. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1965 Wax and Gold: Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopian Culture. Chicago: University of
Lewis, I.M. 1955 Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho. (Ethnographic Survey of Africa: North Eastern Africa, Pt. 1.) London: International African Institute.
Location and Boundaries
Location and Boundaries
Ethiopia is located in the centre of the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with the Sudan and South Sudan to the west; Eritrea to the north and north-east; Djibouti and Somaliland to the east; Somalia and Kenya to the south.
It covers an area of 1.14 million square Kilometers (944,000 square miles)
The population according to the 2007 Census was 73,918,505. The growth rate is estimated at 3.2% and the current population estimate is now 86 million, of which 46% fall within the 1-14 age range; 51% between 15 and 64; and 3% are over 65. Approximately 17% of the population is estimated to live in urban areas.
Nation and Nationalities
Ethiopia is home to over 80 different peoples and nationalities. According to the 2007 census the larger ones are: Oromo 25.5 million (35%); Amhara 20 million (27%); Somali 4.6 million 6.2%); Tigrean 4.5 million (6.1%) Sidama 3 million (4%); Gurage 1.9 million (2.5%); Welayta 1.7 million (2.3%); Hadiya 1.3 million (1.7%); Afar 1.3 million (1.7%); Gamo 1.1 million (1.5%).
Christians make up 62.8% of the population (43.5% follow the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and 19.3 other denominations); Muslims 33.9%; traditional faiths 2.6%; and others 0.6%.
Although Ethiopia lies within 15 degrees North of the Equator, overall the country enjoys moderate temperatures and a pleasant climate, with average temperature rarely exceeding 200C (680F), owing to the moderating influence of high altitude. The more sparsely populated lowlands tend to have sub–tropical and tropical climates; and parts of the Afar regional State in the east of the country which lie below sea level are considered to be the hottest place on earth with temperatures regularly reaching 500C (1200F) or more.
At approximately 850mm (34inches), the average annual rainfall for the whole country is considered to be moderate by global standards. In most of the highland areas, rainfall occurs in two distinct seasons: the "small rains" (belg) during February and March and the "big rains" (kremt) from June to September. In the south east lowlands the rainy seasons are from March to May, the longer season (gu), and the short rainy season from October to December (deyr).
There are international airports at Addis Ababa (Bole International Airport), and at Dire Dawa, Bahr Dar, Gondar, Lalibela, Axum, Arba Minch, and Mekelle. The national carrier, Ethiopian Airlines, has an excellent international reputation and currently flies to 81 international destinations in America, Europe, Africa and Asia as well as 18 local flight destinations. It is now taking delivery of the latest Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" aircraft for its long haul flights.
The main entry points by road are at Moyale (from Kenya), Humera and Metema (from Sudan), Dewele (from Djibouti). All have full customs and immigration checks. Until Eritrea invaded Ethiopia in 1998, Humera, Rama, Zalembessa and Bure were entry points from Eritrea; in the absence of any effort by Eritrea to normalize relations, they remain closed.
VisasAll visitors to Ethiopia, except citizens of Kenya, require a visa to enter the country. These should be obtained in advance from an Ethiopian Embassy, though single entry, one to three month, tourist visas can be obtained at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa. For information about business visas or multiply entry tourist visas, contact a local Ethiopian Embassy which will provide the relevant forms. Visas issued by embassies are valid from the day of issue not from the date of arrival in Ethiopia
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