Ethiopia is a multi-party federal democracy with legislative authority resting with the government headed by an executive prime minister and the elected House of Representatives (547 members) and the House of Federation (110 members). The Prime Minister is chosen by the party in power following multi-party democratic national and federal state elections which are held every five years. Parties can be registered at either the national or the federal state level. The President is elected by the members of the House of People's Representatives.
President:Dr. Mulatu Teshome
Prime Minister:Dr. Abiy Ahmed
Speaker of the House of People's Representatives:Muferiat Kamil
Cabinet (October 2016):
- Deputy Prime Minister Demeke Mekonnen
- Dr Workneh Gebeyehu – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Motuma Mekasa – Minister of Defense
- Dr. Amir Aman - Minister of Health
- Uba Mohammed –Minister of Communication and Information Technology
- Kebede Chane- Minister of Federal Affairs and Pastoral Area Development
- Dr Abreham Tekeste- Minister of Finance and Economic Cooperation
- Siraj Fegessa- Minister of Transport
- Dr. Tilaye Gete – Minister of Education
- Ato Melaku Alebel - Minister of Trade
- Dr Ambachew Mekonnen –Minister of Industry
- Ato Shiferaw Shigute, Minister of Agriculture & Livestock Resources
- Tagese Chafo- Minister of Public Service and Human Resource Development
- Ato Janterar Abay - Minister of Urban Development and Housing
- Engineer Aisha Mohammed- Minister of Construction
- Ato Meles Alemu - Minister of Mines Petroleum and Natural Resources
- Dr. Engineer Sileshi Bekele- Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity
- Dr Gemedo Dale- Minister of Environmental, Forest and Climate Change
- Dr Engineer Getahun Mekuria- Minister of Science and Technology
- Amb. Teshome Toga- Minister of Public Enterprise
- Dr Hirut Woldemariam - Minister of Labor and Social Affairs
- W/ro Yealem Tsegaye- Minister of Women's and Children's Affairs
- Ristu Yirdaw- Minister of Youth and Sports
- W/ro Fozia Amin - Minister of Culture and Tourism
- Ato Berhanu Tsegaye - Attorney General
- Ahmed Shide - Minister of Government Communication Affairs Office
- Omar Hussein- Minister of Ethiopian Revenues and Costumes Authority
- Dr Yinager Dese- Commissioner of National Planning Commission
- Asmelash Woldesilasie – Chief Government Whip
Location and Boundaries
Location and Boundaries
Ethiopia is located in the centre of the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with the Sudan and South Sudan to the west; Eritrea to the north and north-east; Djibouti and Somaliland to the east; Somalia and Kenya to the south.
It covers an area of 1.14 million square Kilometers (944,000 square miles)
The population according to the 2007 Census was 73,918,505. The growth rate is estimated at 3.2% and the current population estimate is now 86 million, of which 46% fall within the 1-14 age range; 51% between 15 and 64; and 3% are over 65. Approximately 17% of the population is estimated to live in urban areas.
Nation and Nationalities
Ethiopia is home to over 80 different peoples and nationalities. According to the 2007 census the larger ones are: Oromo 25.5 million (35%); Amhara 20 million (27%); Somali 4.6 million 6.2%); Tigrean 4.5 million (6.1%) Sidama 3 million (4%); Gurage 1.9 million (2.5%); Welayta 1.7 million (2.3%); Hadiya 1.3 million (1.7%); Afar 1.3 million (1.7%); Gamo 1.1 million (1.5%).
Christians make up 62.8% of the population (43.5% follow the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and 19.3 other denominations); Muslims 33.9%; traditional faiths 2.6%; and others 0.6%.
Although Ethiopia lies within 15 degrees North of the Equator, overall the country enjoys moderate temperatures and a pleasant climate, with average temperature rarely exceeding 200C (680F), owing to the moderating influence of high altitude. The more sparsely populated lowlands tend to have sub–tropical and tropical climates; and parts of the Afar regional State in the east of the country which lie below sea level are considered to be the hottest place on earth with temperatures regularly reaching 500C (1200F) or more.
At approximately 850mm (34inches), the average annual rainfall for the whole country is considered to be moderate by global standards. In most of the highland areas, rainfall occurs in two distinct seasons: the "small rains" (belg) during February and March and the "big rains" (kremt) from June to September. In the south east lowlands the rainy seasons are from March to May, the longer season (gu), and the short rainy season from October to December (deyr).
There are international airports at Addis Ababa (Bole International Airport), and at Dire Dawa, Bahr Dar, Gondar, Lalibela, Axum, Arba Minch, and Mekelle. The national carrier, Ethiopian Airlines, has an excellent international reputation and currently flies to 81 international destinations in America, Europe, Africa and Asia as well as 18 local flight destinations. It is now taking delivery of the latest Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" aircraft for its long haul flights.
The main entry points by road are at Moyale (from Kenya), Humera and Metema (from Sudan), Dewele (from Djibouti). All have full customs and immigration checks. Until Eritrea invaded Ethiopia in 1998, Humera, Rama, Zalembessa and Bure were entry points from Eritrea; in the absence of any effort by Eritrea to normalize relations, they remain closed.
VisasAll visitors to Ethiopia, except citizens of Kenya, require a visa to enter the country. These should be obtained in advance from an Ethiopian Embassy, though single entry, one to three month, tourist visas can be obtained at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa. For information about business visas or multiply entry tourist visas, contact a local Ethiopian Embassy which will provide the relevant forms. Visas issued by embassies are valid from the day of issue not from the date of arrival in Ethiopia
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